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17 Αυγούστου 2019, 23:33:50

Αποστολέας Θέμα: Πρέπει να θεραπεύουμε τον υποκλινικό υποθυρεοειδισμό; - Wait and see.  (Αναγνώστηκε 7781 φορές)

0 μέλη και 1 επισκέπτης διαβάζουν αυτό το θέμα.

21 Δεκεμβρίου 2016, 22:30:34
Αναγνώστηκε 7781 φορές
Αποσυνδεδεμένος

Argirios Argiriou

Moderator
November 14, 2016
Medscape Medical News
Time for a U-turn on Levothyroxine? Overuse Is Rife, Say Docs
Liam Davenport


Using levothyroxine to treat subclinical hypothyroidism should be considered on a patient-by-patient basis and be started only after at least two thyroid-stimulating-hormone (TSH) tests show an abnormal result, urge a group of clinicians concerned about overuse of the drug.

There has been an explosion in prescriptions for levothyroxine in recent years, largely driven by guidelines recommending the treatment of subclinical increases in TSH levels even in the absence of symptoms, they say.

However, there is scant evidence to support a benefit from treatment, which may expose patients to ongoing out-of-pocket expenses, as well as adverse effects, particularly in older patients with naturally higher TSH levels.

"There is substantial uncertainty and complexity associated with the technical aspects of identifying otherwise-healthy people affected by mild, nonspecific symptoms who would benefit from levothyroxine," write René Rodriguez-Gutierrez, MD, knowledge and evaluation research unit, division of endocrinology, diabetes, metabolism, and nutrition, Mayo Clinic, "This uncertainty and complexity calls for policies that invite patients and clinicians to enroll in clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of levothyroxine use, rather than to the routine, expanding, and prolonged use of a treatment of uncertain value," they state.

Dr Rodriguez-Gutierrez told Medscape Medical News that he and his colleagues want to "call attention" to the issue of levothyroxine overuse.

As well as recommending that physicians adopt a precautionary, patient-centered approach when considering starting someone on the drug, it is also important that patients understand what is driving these prescriptions and "be more aware," he said, adding that in addition it's vital that the scientific and research community realize "that we have to do something."

"In the meantime, decisions still have to be made," Dr Rodriguez-Gutierrez noted. Involving the patient in the discussion "to see not only the benefits, of which we are not very sure, but also the harms and the costs and inconvenience" is key, and then a decision can be taken together as to whether to test and ultimately treat.

Levothryoxine Most Prescribed Drug in the US

While the prevalence of overt hypothyroidism is low, at between 0.2% and 2.0% of the population, and its incidence is stable, the authors point out that the number of prescriptions for levothyroxine have increased substantially in recent years, and it is now the most prescribed drug in the United States, with 120 million prescriptions written in 2014, and the third most prescribed drug in the United Kingdom.

Several factors have driven the increase in prescriptions, the doctors say. Subclinical hypothyroidism affects up to 12% of the adult population, and current guidelines say that those with TSH of ≥10 mlU/L, or those with TSH between 5.5 and 10 mlU/L who have potentially related symptoms, positive autoantibodies, or cardiovascular disease, should receive treatment.

Yet the guidelines are not backed up by data — the doctors argue there is a lack of evidence to suggest that there is a clear benefit of levothyroxine therapy outside of patients with thyroid cancer.

Adding to the pressure, the researchers note that the American Thyroid Association recommends that asymptomatic men and women aged over 35 years should be screened for thyroid dysfunction every 5 years, which has led to a "surge" in thyroid tests.

As a result, the proportion of patients being treated has increased in recent years, they state. In the United Kingdom, for example, those with TSH of 10 mlU/L or lower were prescribed levothyroxine 1.3 times more in 2009 than in 2001, and 31% of treated patients had normal thyroxine values and no symptoms or abnormal cardiovascular risk factors.

But the doctors point out that elevated TSH levels normalize in around 60% of cases without intervention, potentially due to normal variations in TSH levels, the passing of a concomitant illness, concomitant drug use, and environmental and stress factors, among other things. In addition, healthy elderly people have been shown to have naturally higher TSH levels.

Another issue is that the symptoms of both subclinical and overt hypothyroidism, such as dry skin, hair loss, constipation, myalgia, and fatigue, are nonspecific and linked to hypothyroidism in only around 10% of cases.

"Therefore, symptoms might not reliably identify those who can benefit from levothyroxine treatment," the team writes.

Before prescribing levothyroxine, clinicians should also consider the financial implications, as the 3-month out-of-pocket cost to patients in the United States can be as high as $100, and treatment will result in ongoing clinical visits and possibly lifelong monitoring and follow-up.

Finally, levothyroxine is not without potential therapeutic consequences, they add.

In older patients with naturally higher TSH levels, treatment can result in adverse effects such as hyperthyroidism, increasing the risk of arrhythmias, angina pectoris, bone loss, and fractures, they observe.

Repeat TSH Before Considering Treatment and Conduct More Studies

To improve the quality of levothyroxine prescription, the authors recommend several strategies, beginning with assessing the potential benefit vs burden of treatment on an individual patient basis.

They also recommend that, due to the potential for TSH levels to normalize over time, all patients with abnormally high TSH concentrations that are consistent with subclinical hypothyroidism should have the test repeated, ideally in the same laboratory, after 3 to 6 months before treatment is considered.

Moreover, it should be recognized that "patients with nonspecific symptoms and normal thyroid-function tests do not benefit from levothyroxine therapy."

If such treatment is started, the authors recommend that the lowest dose of a generic preparation of levothryoxine should be used and reassessed periodically to determine its efficacy.

In the meantime, the authors call for "much-needed research" on the efficacy of levothyroxine. Dr Rodriguez-Gutierrez explained that "what we need now is a pragmatic comparative-effectiveness study."

He said: "The idea would be to have a multicenter study," with different clinical scenarios, "including people with subclinical hypothyroidism, and then give them the treatment and see what happens on outcomes that matter to them.

"The outcome that matters to them is not TSH, it's quality of life," he stressed.

Such a study "will require an enormous effort from probably multiple researchers," he concluded.

The authors report no relevant financial relationships.

For more diabetes and endocrinology news, follow us on Twitter and on Facebook.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2016. Published online October 28, 2016. Editorial

Δεν είναι ορατοί οι σύνδεσμοι (links). Εγγραφή ή Είσοδος



« Τελευταία τροποποίηση: 21 Δεκεμβρίου 2016, 23:08:41 από Argirios Argiriou »
Before ordering a test decide what you will do if it is (1) positive, or (2) negative. If both answers are the same, don't do the test. Archie Cochrane.

4 Απριλίου 2017, 22:14:13
Απάντηση #1
Αποσυνδεδεμένος

Argirios Argiriou

Moderator
April 4, 2017. Journal Watch.

Levothyroxine Shows No Benefit in Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

By Amy Orciari Herman

Edited by David G. Fairchild, MD, MPH, and Jaye Elizabeth Hefner, MD

Levothyroxine therapy seems to offer no benefit to older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism, according to a New England Journal of Medicine study presented at the Endocrine Society's ENDO 2017 meeting.

The study included nearly 740 adults aged 65 or older who had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels ranging from 4.60 to 19.99 mIU/L plus free thyroxine in the reference range. Participants were randomized to receive daily levothyroxine or placebo. Levothyroxine was started at 50 µg/day (or 25 µg/day for those who weighed under 50 kg or had coronary heart disease), with dose adjustment targeting a TSH level of 0.40–4.59 mIU.

The two primary outcomes — changes in a hypothyroidism symptom score and a tiredness score at 12 months — did not differ significantly between the groups. Secondary outcomes, including cognitive function and performance in activities of daily living, also did not differ.

LINK(S):

NEJM article (Free)

Background: NEJM Journal Watch General Medicine coverage of the natural history of subclinical hypothyroidism in older adults (Your NEJM Journal Watch registration required).

Δεν είναι ορατοί οι σύνδεσμοι (links). Εγγραφή ή Είσοδος

Before ordering a test decide what you will do if it is (1) positive, or (2) negative. If both answers are the same, don't do the test. Archie Cochrane.

5 Απριλίου 2017, 09:07:42
Απάντηση #2
Αποσυνδεδεμένος

GirousisN


Πέστα Χρυσόστομε.
Άντε να πείσεις όμως τον άλλο, ότι δεν χρειάζεται να παίρνει θυροξίνη την ώρα που του το έχει πει ο ενδοκρινολόγος και του έχει κάνει  και 2 υπερηχογραφήματα για να δικαιολογήσει και το 50 άρικο.

5 Απριλίου 2017, 10:30:05
Απάντηση #3
Αποσυνδεδεμένος

Denominator

Moderator
Αχ...
Και πόσοι από εμάς τους "πρωτοβάθμιους" προσπαθούμε να "διορθώσουμε" την TSH, χωρίς καν να ψάχνουμε αν υπάρχει νόσος, χωρίς καν να έχουμε κάνει κλινική εξέταση θυρεοειδή...
Ας λέμε την άποψή μας ευθαρσώς, και ας λοιδωρούμαστε (προσωρινώς) από τους ενδοκρινολόγους.
Μελλοθάνατε ιατρέ, οι ασθενείς σου σε χαιρετούν.

19 Απριλίου 2017, 07:21:43
Απάντηση #4
Αποσυνδεδεμένος

Argirios Argiriou

Moderator
April 18, 2017

Should We Treat Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism?

Allan S. Brett, MD Reviewing Stott DJ et al., N Engl J Med 2017 Apr 3;

In an older population, treatment was not beneficial.

Subclinical hypothyroidism (i.e., elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and normal free thyroxine levels) is common, but the value of treatment remains controversial. In this U.K. randomized trial, investigators identified 737 older patients (age, ≥65) who had laboratory evidence of subclinical hypothyroidism within the previous 3 years (TSH levels, 4.6–19.99 mIU/L) and were not treated. Patients received either supplemental levothyroxine or placebo; initial levothyroxine dose was either 25 μg or 50 μg daily, depending on body weight and cardiac history, and dosing was titrated to achieve a normal TSH level (0.4–4.6 mIU/L). At baseline, mean TSH level was 6.4 mIU/L, and mean free thyroxine level was 1.03 ng/dL.

During 1 year of follow-up, standardized thyroid symptom scores and fatigue scores (the primary outcomes) and numerous secondary outcomes — including quality of life, grip strength, and body-mass index — were similar in the two groups. No adverse effects from supplemental levothyroxine were noted.

Comment

One year of treatment for older patients with subclinical hypothyroidism has no obvious clinical value; whether longer duration of treatment confers benefit (or harm) remains unclear. An additional observation is notable: Of patients who initially were eligible for this trial based on past test results, about 60% had normal TSH levels when they were retested prior to randomization (such patients were excluded from enrollment). Frequent spontaneous normalization of mildly elevated TSH levels has been described previously.

Editor Disclosures at Time of Publication

Disclosures for Allan S. Brett, MD at time of publication

Nothing to disclose

Citation(s):

Stott DJ et al. Thyroid hormone therapy for older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med 2017 Apr 3;

[e-pub]. (Δεν είναι ορατοί οι σύνδεσμοι (links). Εγγραφή ή Είσοδος)

Δεν είναι ορατοί οι σύνδεσμοι (links). Εγγραφή ή Είσοδος
« Τελευταία τροποποίηση: 19 Απριλίου 2017, 07:24:01 από Argirios Argiriou »
Before ordering a test decide what you will do if it is (1) positive, or (2) negative. If both answers are the same, don't do the test. Archie Cochrane.

28 Μαρτίου 2018, 21:12:19
Απάντηση #5
Αποσυνδεδεμένος

Argirios Argiriou

Moderator
Ελληνική εργασία όπως παρουσιάστηκε στο Εndo 2018.


Before ordering a test decide what you will do if it is (1) positive, or (2) negative. If both answers are the same, don't do the test. Archie Cochrane.

10 Οκτωβρίου 2018, 17:23:02
Απάντηση #6
Αποσυνδεδεμένος

Argirios Argiriou

Moderator
October 2, 2018

Association of Thyroid Hormone Therapy With Quality of Life and Thyroid-Related Symptoms in Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Martin Feller, MD, MSc1,2,3; Marieke Snel, MD, PhD3; Elisavet Moutzouri, MD, PhD1,2; et al Douglas C. Bauer, MD4; Maria de Montmollin, MD1,2; Drahomir Aujesky, MD, MSc1; Ian Ford, PhD5; Jacobijn Gussekloo, MD, PhD3,6; Patricia M. Kearney, MD, PhD, MPH7; Simon Mooijaart, MD, PhD3,8; Terry Quinn, MD9; David Stott, MD9; Rudi Westendorp, MD, PhD10; Nicolas Rodondi, MD, MAS1,2; Olaf M. Dekkers, MD, MA, MSc, PhD3,11,12

Author Affiliations
JAMA. 2018;320(13):1349-1359. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.13770

Conclusions and Relevance:

Among nonpregnant adults with subclinical hypothyroidism, the use of thyroid hormone therapy was not associated with improvements in general quality of life or thyroid-related symptoms. These findings do not support the routine use of thyroid hormone therapy in adults with subclinical hypothyroidism.

Δεν είναι ορατοί οι σύνδεσμοι (links). Εγγραφή ή Είσοδος
Before ordering a test decide what you will do if it is (1) positive, or (2) negative. If both answers are the same, don't do the test. Archie Cochrane.

11 Οκτωβρίου 2018, 11:17:59
Απάντηση #7
Αποσυνδεδεμένος

aegeanman


Απολύτως συμφώνω με το άρθρο αυτό. Παρέμβαση θα χρειαστεί μόνο αν αν ο ασθενής δηλώνει κλινικά συμπτώματα υποθυρεοειδισμού διαφορετικά monitoring and w&w με εξάμηνο επανέλεγχο TSH, T4 αρκεί
Δημήτρης Ι

12 Οκτωβρίου 2018, 02:36:16
Απάντηση #8
Αποσυνδεδεμένος

Denominator

Moderator
Φυσικά η πλειονότητα των ενδοκρινολόγων διαφωνεί, τουλάχιστον στην πράξη.
 ;D
Μελλοθάνατε ιατρέ, οι ασθενείς σου σε χαιρετούν.

14 Νοεμβρίου 2018, 17:51:30
Απάντηση #9
Αποσυνδεδεμένος

Argirios Argiriou

Moderator
Για τους ασθενείς με υποθυρεοειδισμό, η θεραπεία με υπερβολική φαρμακευτική αγωγή θα μπορούσε να οδηγήσει σε αυξημένο κίνδυνο κολπικής μαρμαρυγής, σύμφωνα με νέα μελέτη περισσότερων από 174.000 ασθενών.

12 November 2018

AHA 2018 News: For patients with hypothyroidism, being treated with too much medication could lead to an increased risk of AF ( Atrial Fibrillation).

Δεν είναι ορατοί οι σύνδεσμοι (links). Εγγραφή ή Είσοδος
Before ordering a test decide what you will do if it is (1) positive, or (2) negative. If both answers are the same, don't do the test. Archie Cochrane.

16 Δεκεμβρίου 2018, 21:31:51
Απάντηση #10
Αποσυνδεδεμένος

Argirios Argiriou

Moderator
Can 'Normal' T4 Levels Increase AF Risk?

11 December 2018

................
........................
the relative risk for prevalent AF in the highest normal free T4 quartile group was double that of the lowest group. No similar associations were seen between the quartiles for free T3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) results were mixed.
.................................

Δεν είναι ορατοί οι σύνδεσμοι (links). Εγγραφή ή Είσοδος
Before ordering a test decide what you will do if it is (1) positive, or (2) negative. If both answers are the same, don't do the test. Archie Cochrane.

16 Μαΐου 2019, 08:20:11
Απάντηση #11
Αποσυνδεδεμένος

Argirios Argiriou

Moderator
BMJ, 14 May 2019

"We recommend against thyroid hormone therapy for patients with subclinical hypothyroidism"

Δεν είναι ορατοί οι σύνδεσμοι (links). Εγγραφή ή Είσοδος

Τα λένε και εδώ στην Ελλάδα, αλλά ποιος τους ακούει...

27/10/2018

Εξι στους δέκα ασθενείς μπορούν και πρέπει να κόψουν το καθημερινό χαπάκι τους!

Δεν είναι ορατοί οι σύνδεσμοι (links). Εγγραφή ή Είσοδος
« Τελευταία τροποποίηση: 16 Μαΐου 2019, 08:22:26 από Argirios Argiriou »
Before ordering a test decide what you will do if it is (1) positive, or (2) negative. If both answers are the same, don't do the test. Archie Cochrane.

16 Μαΐου 2019, 21:26:36
Απάντηση #12
Αποσυνδεδεμένος

Denominator

Moderator
Πάντως προσωπικά έχω δει πολλούς ασθενείς με "ιατρογενή" υπερθυρεοειδισμό.
Σε αρκετές περιπτώσεις μάλιστα, ασθενείς με συμπτώματα, ξεχνούν να αναφέρουν την αγωγή για το θυρεοειδή. Καθώς λοιπόν η θυροξίνη, λόγω του μικρού κόστους της, δε γράφεται σε συνταγή, λείπει από το ιστορικό που είναι προσβάσιμο μέσω της εφαρμογής της ηλεκτρονικής συνταγογράφησης.
Μελλοθάνατε ιατρέ, οι ασθενείς σου σε χαιρετούν.

Λέξεις κλειδιά: υποκλινικό υποθυρεοειδισμό 
 

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